What's Included with this Course?
- Machine Theory
- Needle Sizes and Usage
- Skin Anatomy
- Client Consultation
- Eye designs and Shapes
- Proper stretching techniques
- Skin Anesthetics Application
- Skin Tone, color selection, and color mix
- Skin Structure
- Tools and Materials: Setting Up Your Workstation
- Infection Prevention & Control
- Live Model
- Business Setup and Requirements
- Marketing your business
The eyes are the mirror of the soul, and thanks to the latest semi-permanent makeup techniques, we can emphasize its natural beauty and visually improve eyes contour.
Nowadays, there are numerous methods of permanent eyeliner makeup, from fairly embedding minor and subtle enhancement in the eyelash line to creating a butterfly effect with many different shades of pigmentation.
The treatment starts with an extensive consultation when you design an initial and contour, which allows the client o to visualize the final effect of this procedure
This is the most subtle technique involving pigmentation between the natural lashes on the top and bottom eyelid.
Perfectly designed and applied semi-permanent eye makeup enhances the eye's contour and shape. Skillfully selected techniques can visually enlarge smaller eyes or adjust the size of more oversized and make eyes appear more oval, almond shape.
The perfect permanent decorative eyeliner beautifully emphasizes the eye's contour, and it is always individually designed to create a unique final effect. My clients frequently love how astonished they are with the visual modification achieved with the semi-permanent makeup.
Generally, this Permanent Makeup technique results in mora e dramatic final look. The carefully selected pigment is applied in a thicker line on top of the previously enhanced eyelashes ended with the perfectly finished flick.
Also commonly known as butterfly eyeliner, this is another excellent semi-permanent eyeliner makeup technique that I would recommend to clients after more convent effect and those who want to achieve a glamorous and rather dramatic look.
This treatment is discussed in depth at the first consultation when an initial design is created before the micropigmentation process commences. This is to ensure you are delighted with the style and shape of your eyeliner.
The perfect permanent eyeliner can be slightly smudged on the eyelid area, and this is to mimic the effect of an eyeshadow. The color scheme is usually pre-selected at the initial consultation.
BENEFITS OF EYELINER TATTOOING
Permanent eyeliner or eyelash enhancement helps women and men enhance the appearance of their eyes. It eliminates the need to outline eyelids with liquid liners or pencils and improves the appearance of missing, thin, or light-colored lashes. Permanent eyeliner allows people to swim, shower, or exercise without having makeup smudges. It provides safety and convenience to people with oily skin, vision problems, or unsteady hands. Eye doctors (Ophthalmologists and Optometrists) also recommend permanent eyeliner to patients who wear contact lenses, have watery eyes, or are allergic to regular makeup.
Eyeliner" "frames" the eyes and can make eyelashes appear darker, fuller, or thicker. It can enhance the shape or balance (symmetry) of a person's eye, create the illusion of more enormous eyes, or affect how the spacing of the eyes is perceived. Eyeliner can also enhance or intensify eye color and make eyes appear more alluring.
HEALTH & SAFETY
- THE IMPORTANCE OF HYGIENIC PRACTICES
Effective use of hygiene practices is necessary for the salon to prevent cross-infection. Germs surround us. Some germs are harmless, some are even beneficial, but others cause disease and therefore present a danger. Cross-infection occurs when microorganisms capable of causing illness and infection are transferred through personal contact or contact with infected tools that have not been adequately cleaned and sterilized.
Contraindication - A contraindication is a reason not to carry out a service. When you carry out your consultation, it is essential to check for any type of contraindication or signs of infection. If a contraindication is evident or suspected, advise that your client goes to their G.P. and gets written confirmation that it is safe to carry out the treatment (attach this letter to their client record card).
Contra-action - A contra-action is an adverse reaction to a treatment or product. This can happen even when all the necessary safety precautions have been taken. Contra- actions must be recognized and dealt with appropriately.
Infection occurs when the body becomes contaminated by microorganisms, including bacteria, fungal or viral causes. The reaction to the condition will depend on its cause and the part of the body which is infected. The general signs of infection are inflammation, swelling, and pus. Secondary infection can occur if bacteria penetrate an existing injury.
- SANITIZATION AND STERILIZATION
Sanitization refers to any procedure undertaken in the salon to remove contamination and reduce the risk of infection to ensure effective sanitization of tools, equipment, and specific requirements. As a permanent makeup practitioner, you have a duty of care, and you must provide a clean and sanitized environment and equipment for your client.
Sterilization is the destruction of all microorganisms. It is tough to maintain sterile conditions as once the items have been exposed to the air, they are no longer classed as pure. Only articles that have been cleaned, sterilized, and stored hygienically are safe to use on clients.
Methods of cleaning tools and equipment:
- Disinfectant inhibits the growth of disease-causing organisms (except spores) using chemical agents. Disinfectants only reduce the number of organisms, but this is usually sufficient for maintaining hygienic conditions. Disinfectant is used primarily for wiping down work surfaces and equipment. Disinfectants should only be used under the manufacturer's instructions and following the proper OSHA guidelines. Do not use it directly on the skin.
Iron oxides (Fe2O3 and Fe3O4) lack a carbon molecule and are therefore "inorganic." Iron oxides in nature (dirt) are often combined with toxic metals like lead, arsenic, mercury, antimony, and selenium. The FDA has regulated cosmetic colorants, so the level of the poisonous metal present is below specific percentages to be used safely.
Synthetic iron oxides are manufactured to eliminate contaminants found in naturally occurring iron oxides. The oxide blacks (magnetite) have magnetic properties. These metals are insertion oxides, a softer metal than titanium dioxide. Iron oxide molecules are crystals and are in different shapes. Some are spherical, others are rhomboids, and others look like a pencil-shaped crystal (long and narrow). Ultraviolet light can affect the crystalline structure and result in loss of color activity.
It is a mistaken belief that pigment particles are 6 microns or more significant. The fact is that the average iron oxide particle size is less than one micron. However, the particles are attracted to each other and form. When the particles are measured in a suspension, it is common to get a particle size measurement of 1- 20 microns because the agglomerates are being measured in addition to the individual particles. Although iron oxides are inorganic, they are often dispersed in glycerin or alcohol, organic substances.
Common in inks used for tattooing, the black carbon particle is without shape or" "amorphous," and the size is a tiny .03 microns. This means it is 10-20 times smaller in size than an iron oxide pigment particle. My personal belief is that this ultra-small size is why we will often see migration or" "bleeding" of pigment into surrounding tissues when using carbon black-based inks. An example of carbon black ink is Pelican® Brand Ink. Because lead is no longer legal in the U.S. as an additive to carbon black, even India Ink or Pelican Ink have lost their "black blackness." Carbon black is illegal for use in cosmetics in the United States because of a case of blindness that resulted from its use in mascara. Carbon black is legal in other countries and is used widely in the U.S. by tattooists. Although it is safe to use when alcohol is present to prevent infections, the law remains to be changed in the U.S.
By definition, a pigment is a particle and NOT soluble in solution. If a colorant dissolves in the solution, then it becomes a dye. Various dispersal agents such as glycerin, ethyl alcohol, Witch Hazel, water, castor oil, propylene glycol, and others keep the particles forming clumps. Remember that these particles are weakly attracted to each other.
Many colorant molecules are organic because they contain a carbon molecule. You don't have to look any further than your dinner table to find examples of organic colors. Spinach, carrots, tomatoes, beets, and parsley are all" "organic" colors. We eat these products every day, and they are very safe. Most pigment suppliers utilize both organic and inorganic pigments, including carmine. You cannot get" "bright" colors unless they are organic in origin.
PROPERTIES OF PIGMENTS
The smaller a pigment becomes, the more translucent it, which are a thousand times smaller than" "micron-size" particles. The larger the particle size, the lighter it will reflect and the opaquer it will become.
Iron oxides contain nickel, and a large percentage of the population tested is allergic to nickel (17.9%). Tattoo needles, including surgical-grade stainless steel needles, contain nickel (8.2%). So, sensitivity to pigments can occur, even to iron oxides. The fact that organic colorants do not contain nickel is good. However, the inert iron oxides are very safe despite the presence of nickel. Some organic pigments have caused severe allergic reactions and granulomas that are difficult to treat. Fortunately, this is rare. Most adverse effects come from sensitivity to antibiotic ointments applied after the permanent cosmetic procedure.
Iron oxides exist in reds, yellows, blacks, ochre, umber, and burnt umber. Synthetic iron oxides come in several red, yellow, and black shades. A pigment has both a ""top ton"" and an ""undertone"". So, in addition to dealing with the undertones in the client's skin, you must consider the "undertone" in the pigment.
Compared to iron oxides, titanium dioxide is very opaque. However, although white in appearance, it also has undertones (DuPont) which may be blue on the light spectrum in some cases. It is often mixed with blacks, reds, and yellows to lighten (tint) the cosmetic color's original hue (color).
LOSS OF COLOR OVER TIME
- Exposure to sunlight or U.V. light
- The body breaks down foreign bodies when possible and eliminates them
- The use of glycolic, Retin-A, and other new products for wrinkle treatments hurts permanent makeup.
There are advantages to either inorganic or organic colorants. Allergic reactions to red pigments used in tattoos were allergic reactions to the Yellow" "Cadmium sulphone" added to the reds. Often, a claim of an "allergic reaction" is made after lip color when the culprit was from overworking the lips with the needles. Bumps will occur in this case. This should NOT be mistakenly diagnosed as an allergic reaction. A tiny tissue" "punch" biopsy is needed to confirm ANY suspected allergic reaction. The treatment for allergic reactions ranges from over tattooing with salt water to topical or systemic steroids to laser removal at- tempts. Also, go to www.fda.gov/ and search for the word "tattoo."
- PRELIMINARY CONSULTATION
The preliminary consultation is used to understand what your client wants to achieve and determine whether they are suitable can Micropigmentation. Their colorings will be assessed, and any contraindications they may have that will prohibit them from having the treatment. During this consultation, you should ask questions your client has, and they should be given a patch test. At the beginning of the client's sign the form for air procedure, the client will carry out the treatment.
- PATCH TEST
A patch test should be given to the client at least 24 hours before their treatment to help determine whether they have an allergy to either the pigment or anesthetic. If the client comes to the clinic, a small dot of pigment and anesthetic should be applied to an inconspicuous part of their body, for example, behind the ear. If you post their patch test to them, you may wish to send a cotton bud with some of the pigment and anesthetic on it, which they can rehydrate and apply to themselves.
As mentioned previously, a contraindication to micropigmentation is a condition that serves as a purpose for a person not undergoing the semi-permanent makeup treatment. If your client admits to having one of these conditions, you should not carry out the treatment. The list below is not exhaustive, but these are the most common contraindications preventing a client from having treatment. You should also check with your insurance company as they may put exclusion clauses in your public and product liability insurance relating to certain conditions.
- CONSENT FORMS AND ELIGIBILITY DEPENDING ON THE TREATMENT
Your client must declare their medical history and give their signed consent to you carrying out the treatment before you begin.
- DEPENDING ON THE TREATMENT
We recommend at least 2 hours for each new procedure to ensure a detailed analyzed consultation and treatment.
Is it permanent?
Micro-pigmentation procedures can leave residue pigment in the skin permanently. However, it cannot be genuinely classed in the same category as a tattoo, as in many cases, the pigment will fade and may even disappear altogether.
- DOES IT HURT?
Remember that pain is experienced at differing levels with each client and is felt because of damage to the body's tissues.
During the permanent cosmetic procedure, pain can be numb in several ways:
Your client will likely experience some level of pain. While you should use an anesthetic to minimize this, your client should not be deluded into thinking that this is a pain-free procedure nor worry that this painful sensation is abnormal. You may wish to mention to your client that she will be more sensitive during her period and that it is normal to experience pain more on one side of the body than the other because of the positioning of our nerve endings.
- PRE-PROCEDURAL ADVICE SEE APPENDIX
- CONTRA-ACTIONS AND ALLERGIC REACTIONS
Certain contra-actions are expected in the first week following micropigmentation procedures:
- Inflammation - erythema, swelling, and increased skin temperature on and around the treatment site are scheduled for the first 72 hours post-treatment. Severe swelling and blistering within this timescale indicate an allergic reaction to the healing balm. Once the application of this product is ceased, symptoms would begin to disappear
- Pain - Eyelid procedures can cause discomfort for around 72 hours post-treatment in line with the average inflammatory response period. Eyebrows are usually a little tender post-procedure but are not generally painful.
- Peeling/Flaking skin - increased shedding will occur following trauma; this is all part of the natural healing process. However, prolonged dryness beyond two weeks on the eyebrow and eyelid area is not typical, and the client should visit their G.P.
- Bruising can commonly affect the eyelids but is only superficial and subsides typically within 3-5 days.
Skin color (also complexion) is an individual characteristic determined above all by the pigmentation of the skin and the structure of the blood vessels. Various pigments influence the color of the skin—the quantity of melanin is a particularly decisive factor in humans. The color of the skin, whether fair, medium, or dark, depends partly on the blood supply to the skin and primarily on the melanin or coloring matter, which is deposited in the stratum germinativum and the papillary layers of the dermis. The pigment's color varies in different people. The distinctive color of the skin is a hereditary trait and varies among races and nationalities. The amount of melanin in the skin is genetically determined, but more melanin is also produced under exposure to sunlight (U.V. rays) within a particular wavelength. There are two types of melanin: one is eumelanin, a brown-to-black pigment, and the other is pheomelanin, a red-to-yellow pigment. Eumelanin determines the skin type and, with this, the skin color. Pheomelanin then produces a reddish or yellowish undertone, especially in people with light skin types.
The color wheel shows us the full spectrum of different colors and demonstrates how we can mix these colors to create
Another color. As a permanent makeup artist, you will develop further skills to color match the client's skin
type without color swatches, but you always need to
know the basics. There are three different color types: color colors: Red, Yellow, color
Red + Blue = Purple Blue + Yellow = Green Red + Yellow = Orange
These are pure, they cannot; they acted from any other co; termination
Complementary colors are the two cool colors on opposite sides of the color wheel
complete elementary color of a primary color (red, blue, or yellow)
All skins have either a warm tone or a cool tone. As a permanent makeup artist, you need to know that:
RED will add fullness and warmth to your client.
BLUE will add depth and darkness to your clients as it becomes a dense cool color.
YELLOW is a combination of warm and cool tones. It has a small density, but it does have extreme intensity.
Colour theory is an integral part of the permanent makeup procedure. In a color-ins Procedure, the skin may change as it mixes with the client's natural undertones. A client's undertones can be described as "warm" or "cool." 85% of the world's population are cool, and if you are in doubt, you should assume that they are a cool undertone. Skin undertones are decided by their ethnicity and genes and can be categorized into the Fitzpatrick scale.
NEEDLE GROUPING & TECHNIQUES
Each procedure will require a needle which is an open packet in front of the client. This will instill confidence and trust in the client. No needle should be used twice. After the treatment procedure, all used needles must be disposed of correctly in a safety box.
The different types of needle groupings typically used for micropigmentation procedures:
- 1 POINT/SINGLE - Applies the thinnest line, frequently used for eyebrows and pointillism in scar camouflage. Some devices only use single needles in the form of an acupuncture needle, and they can be used for all types of PMU treatment.
- 3-POINT MICRO - A slightly thicker line than using the 1-point needle. They are frequently used for the application of fine eyeliner and eyelash enhancement. Some technicians use this for pointillism in scar camouflage.
- 3-POINT OUTLINE - A slightly thicker line than 3-point micro. They are used for fine liner, eyelash enhancement, and pointillism in scar camouflage.
- 3 POINT - A slightly thicker result than using the 3-point outline. They are used for fine lip liner and color mist for eyebrows. It can still be used for eyelash enhancement and fine eyeliner.
- 3 SLOPED - This will stroke in the skin with one pass. This gives a thicker hair stroke than a flat 4. They are used on the eyebrows.
- 4 FLAT - A thicker line than a 1-point needle. They are frequently used on the hair stroke for the eyebrow, shading the lips, and shading the areola.
- 4 POINT - Gives a thicker eyeliner than a power five or a 3-point needle. It is used to create a thicker eyeliner.
- 5 MAGNUM - Gives an intense line. Suitable for a thicker, low liner.
- 5 SLOPE - Used on shading lips and areola shading.
- POWER 5 - The pigment application is denser, and the line is thicker than a point 3 needle. They are used for fine liner, lip contouring, and lip shading on the eyelid.
- 7 ROUND - Gives a soft shady look and a thicker line than the 5-point needle. They are used for eye color misting, lip contour, and lip shading.
- POWER 7 - An intense line. Thicker than a point 5 and thinner than the seven rounds. They are used for color misting through the brows, lip contour, and lip shading.
- 9 MAGNUM - Used to shade large surface areas, such as areola and lips.
EXAMPLE NEEDLE CONFIGURATION
The needle (of whichever grouping) is used in the device will move up and down. The speed of these movements can be changed, with a faster needle penetrating the skin more than a slower needle and giving more intense and more significant implantation, especially if the device's motion across the skin is dead.
The practitioner can sit either behind or beside the client as a general overview for permanent makeup. This will depend on which they feel the most comfortable with and which treatment they carry out. The key is to be versatile and practice working with clients beside and behind. You will soon establish what you find most easy and comfortable. As permanent makeup professionals worldwide work in different positions around the client, there is no "wrong" or "correct" way of working. However, we believe that the best practice is to work to your client's side and with your back straight and your body weight supported on both forearms at 90 degrees to each other. This enables a level of stability that frees your hands up to stretch the skin properly, keeps your hand and therefore the needle insertion point accurate, and your posture perfect to protect your back.
You will also find that different skins are different to work on and that you prefer to use some needle groupings for certain areas than others. As a beginner, it will take some time and some practice to ascertain the depth that your needle will need to go for optimum absorption of the
THE FEATHERING TECHNIQUE
The needle is used at 45-degrees to the skin, and the movement is a quick cross-cross to create a feathered shading effect. This technique creates a shading effect on the lip line to blend into the center of the lips, achieving a soft finished product.
THE OBERVOID TECHNIQUE
The needle is used at a 45-degree angle in a tiny circling slow motion along an imaginary line. This technique puts color into the skin, either in a shaded effect or bold, thick line. For a shading effect, use looser circles. For a bolder line use tight curls.
THE POINTILLISM TECHNIQUE
The needle is used at right angles (90-degrees). I am using slow, firm dotting motion into the skin. This action will produce a soft shadowy appearance, especially around the eyelids.
THE SCRATCHING TECHNIQUE
The needle can be used at a 45 and 90-degree angle to the skin. The hand moves backward at 1mm and forwards at 2mm rhythmically. This technique creates a solid bold line.
Note: Never reuse needles for a second procedure on the same client. The hand will become blunt, affecting pigment implantation, and causing tissue trauma.
Most people interested in intradermal cosmetics will elect to visit your clinic for a consultation appointment before committing to a procedure. As the first impression of you, your work, and your business, the consultation appointment is as crucial as exciting. Your office and procedure room must be organized, tasteful, and clean. From the minor details up, these spaces should exude professionalism and expertise. A disorganized, unprofessional, and unsanitary environment will cost you many clients.
Upon arrival, you should collect the client's name, address, telephone number, and medical history. The sample custom form includes questions that will help assess your client's candidacy. Information on the procedure (s) that interest, fees, and the client's specific concerns should be recorded during the consultation or immediately after.
As a professional, be sure to discuss all considerations and complications which may arise during and because of the procedure(s). The importance of your internalizing comprehensive knowledge cannot be stressed enough. From this knowledge, you must prioritize thoroughly educating and fully informing your client of all risks involved. Be considerate of the health and welfare of your client.
You should also have a sharps container on your table set up to dispose of your needles.
CONSENT & RELEASE FORMS
IMPORTANCE OF KEEPING GOOD RECORDS
Keeping records is essential as it helps protect you and your client before, during, and after the procedure. Before beginning, always take pictures to defend yourself, your portfolio, and show your client before and after results. Secondly, make sure your clients fill out the release forms completely, even if they are friends or family. Lastly, keep a record of all clients for future reference; they should include:
- Patch Test results (if they opted to take)
- procedure done, note or issues (Examples: Had brows done before by another technician and brows are pink, left is higher than right, different shapes, etc. The client would like eyeliner to extend past the corners. The client insisted on having black brows, even after you suggested brown.)
- color or color mixture used, as well as how many drops of one coloring and how many of another color. Never ask the client if they remember what color you used. Also, you may want to swipe color onto a release form.
- Date of each follow-up/touch-up visit.
e. Amount paid and if any discounts were given.
f. Pros and cons about the procedure.
g. Notes about the client so you remember them.
h. Document each visit and include photos of the healed procedure.
HOW DEEP SHOULD WE BE IN THE SKIN?
It does depend on the area you're tattooing. As an example, the eyebrows verse the eyelids are different. Even the eyelids at the tarsal plate are other than the eyelid skin above it.
As a former skincare professional, I can just about look at the skin and know if it's thick or thin. However, you can also give it a pinch and feel the skin and note the difference. Tattooing in delicate skin will be shallower than tattooing in thicker skin. The best advice I can give is to feel your needles in the skin with your stretching fingers. It's something you start to do intuitively, and you know where you are in the skin by feeling the needles' vibration. It's challenging to handle smaller needle groupings and smaller diameter needles such as nano needles. The beat is minimal, and the nano needles and smaller groups penetrate the skin quickly, so it is essential to feel where your hands are because you can't see them once they are in the skin.
We tattoo on various practice skins often and pay attention to the feel of the needles; I look at the needle footprints and try different techniques. This affected skin was new to me, and I gave it a lot of hand pressure and purposely overworked it and underworked it. I wondered how it might look, and then I decided to cut it open. I think this is an excellent idea for all artists. Push too hard, push too shallow, try different techniques, draw, color, shade, and scribble with your needles and cut your pad open to see" in the skin.
Although practice skins aren't the same as real skin, working on various types will help you feel your needles and control your pressure.
NEEDLE DEPTH CHECK
1) Use a fine-tip makeup brush and paint pigment over a small area of skin where you will be working. This can be eyeliner, brows, lips, areola, or camouflage.
2) Turn on your machine. Look at how far out the needles go beyond the tip of the device. Adjust them so they just barely peek out of the tip.
3) Grip skin between your index finger and thumb. Only have about1/" stretch in this area. You'll look like a chipmunk holding an acorn). Do NOT pull the eyelid to the earlobe. That creates distortion and makes the skin like a trampoline. Develop your" "micro-grid" and control a small area you put color into.
4) Clean Skin with Lubriderm or a similar lotion. (Do NOT use water to clean skin as water causes the skin to swell and does not remove all the pigment. You have a false sense of having put in good color, but the stain will be gone in a few days.)
5) Paint pigment back over the area. Adjust your needle out a bit further and repeat. If you have color, then you are okay. Otherwise, adjust your hand out just a bit further.
By the second or third time, you will see good color in the skin.
HOW SPEED CAN AFFECT YOUR TATTOOED LINES
Sometimes, our results aren't as expected when we tattoo hair strokes or do the lining, but why? One reason is our speed.
What's happening is that the hand is moving slow and fast, resulting in an inconsistent line, with some areas receiving pigment than others. The line will look "skip." Usually, slowing down hand speed will help achieve a solid line.
Factors such as needle throw, machine stroke, skin type, and pressure come into play. Feeling the needle vibration in the skin with the stretching hand helps control the needle depth. Varying depth and stress result in lines that may appear thicker and blurred when the needle is too deep, or the opposite is not enough pressure which results in a thinner cable that is to surface and won't last after healing.
Consistent Speed and Depth
The harmony of hand and machine speed and proper depth result in consistent line saturation and consistent line weight.
Once you have drawn the perfect shape of your eyeliners and documented this, adopt the correct, stable posture on the chosen side of your client and make an intense stretch using your fingers on the eyelid. With your needle, make the first line following the border of the Redrawing, starting on the wing/flick, working from the inside, towards the outside, and then down. This will fix the shape we have drawn with the pencil.
As with the eyebrow procedure, we must now test that the pigment has taken, and we should do this using a cotton bud made damp with Xylocaine and wiping perpendicular to the line. If the color is not entirely in or partly missing, repeat the pigmentation to complete your line.
Once the corner of the eyeliner is visibly in the skin, you can choose either to start the other eye, applying anesthetic to the first eye beforehand to ease discomfort and allow time for this to settle in, or you can continue with the rest of the line working towards the inner corner of the eye. Remember to keep testing whether the pigment has been retained with your cotton bud.
You can wipe it away when your first line is visible; you're Redrawing as you will now have created the perfect border. Repeat the first line and then start shading with very small back and forth movements from the line towards the lashes and from the wing to the interior corner of the eye. Make sure you are still holding a solid stretch.
Repeat this on the other side, and when you have completed this, ask your client to sit up. Be careful, however, of swollen eyelids changing the shape of the liner, and therefore we must rely 100% on our initial drawing. It's better to do little on the first procedure to make more and adjustments during the retouch to ensure an accurate result.